Some favourite sceptical quotations, accumulated over the years
Index of authors cited
Allen Anon Austen Baldwin Bierce Borrow Bradley Broad Butler Campbell Carroll Coward Crisp Critchley Dalai Lama Darwin Dawkins Deacon Dennett Dickens Dodds Ehrenreich Epicurus Feynman Fortey Frayn Goldstein Greaves Grimwood Hawkes Hobbes Holmes Hume Huxley Jefferson Johnson Jones Kaminer Laski Lawrence Lovelock Lucas MacNeice Magee McGinn Mencken Miller Montaigne Mornar Murdoch Oppenheimer Osmond Parfit Putin Ridley Russell Sagan Sapolsky Searle Schopenhauer Seneca Shakespeare Skinner Sontag Storr Stove Strawson Sutherland Swift Voltaire Warburton Wegner Woolf Xenophanes
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There's currently a lot of excitement among web designers about Google's announcement that they will penalise sites that don't work well on mobile devices. I've decided I need to comply with this although with less than total enthusiasm. Nearly all my pages now meet Google's new criteria (the only exception is my cycling pictures.)
The disadvantage of the change is that if you read my pages on a desktop or laptop the lines will be long (unless you adjust the width of your browser, of course). Perhaps I should have alternatives for people who are using those devices, though that would mean more complication and difficulty in maintaining both alternatives. And the variety of ways that web pages can be viewed has increased enormously, so it isn't possible to cater for all of them. Probably it's no longer a good idea to specify the width of one's lines as I did previously.
I'd be grateful for feedback on this.
All my books are available as ebooks on Apple ibooks, Barnes & Noble, and Kobo. For links, please see my home page at www.acampbell.org.uk
or go to my iTunes page
I kept getting this error code when trying to connect to various sites such as YouTube and Wikepedia with Firefox 50.1.0 on OpenBSD. The solution wasn't easy to find but eventually I did so at https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/questions/1143320.
In brief I do this:
(1) In a new tab, type or paste about:config in the address bar and press Enter/Return.
(2) In the search box above the list, type or paste http2 and pause while the list is filtered
(3) Double-click the network.http.spdy.enabled.http2 preference to switch it from true to false
Yoga is becoming ever more popular in countries outside India and it is claimed to have all kinds of mental and physical benefits. It is also widely believed to be an ancient practice and this is an important part of its appeal for some. But Singleton presents a wealth of evidence to show that modern yoga, with its emphasis on postures (asanas), is not rooted in ancient traditions (whatever these may have been) but instead owes a lot to Western gymnastics and other physical culture techniques. Yoga has also been cross-fertilised with Indian nationalism and New Age spirituality. Read more
In yesterday's "Mastermind" the competitor who eventually won the contest was asked: What Greek term is used in the gospels as a translation of Golgotha, meaning the place of the skull? She replied "Calvary", which was taken to be correct.
Although the gospels were written in Greek, "Calvary" is Latin not Greek. So the question was unanswerable. If I'd been in the contestant's place I wouldn't have known what to say.
I learnt this morning that the philosopher Derek Parfit died on 1 January. His book Reasons and Persons
knocked me sideways when I first encountered it. It will take me the rest of my life to absorb the ideas it contains, or begin to. To do so fully would require a radical reconstruction in the whole way I think.
From my review:
It seems to be a basic human characteristic to speculate on the characters and motives of people we know (and, increasingly nowadays, people we don't know who are in the public eye). We also readily make judgements. To all this activity we bring a set of largely implicit assumptions about the nature of personality and the motives of our behaviour. In his long book, Parfit makes a detailed analysis of both of these things and comes to some surprising conclusions - conclusions which, he believes, can considerably alter the way we think of such important matters as the prospect of our own death. "I believe that most of us have false beliefs about our own nature, and our identity over time, and that, when we see the truth, we ought to change some of our beliefs about what we have reason to do."
Why does our planet have an atmosphere containing about 21 per cent oxygen and why do we depend critically on this fact to keep alive? It's not just that we breathe it; if there were no oxygen we would probably have no oceans and we would be bathed in lethal ultraviolet light. The fact that our nearest neighbours, Venus and Mars, have no oceans today may be because they never harboured oxygen-producing organisms. The Earth did, and this made all the difference.
That much is true, but the story is more complicated than this. Until recently the prevailing wisdom was that when oxygen appeared, thanks to photosynthesis by certain bacteria (cyanobacteria), it was toxic to most forms of life and this caused a mass extinction, an 'oxygen holocaust'. But some bacteria were able to adapt to oxygen and eventually to use it to produce energy, and the evolution of complex life was the result. Read more
On my book reviews page there is a review of Cancer: The Evolutionary Legacy
by Mel Greaves. Anyone who is interested in this important topic should see Greaves's lecture
to an audience of biologists published in 2013.
Greaves is Professor of Cell Biology at the Institute of Cell Biology in London. Two important messages emerge from his lecture. One is that the fundamental importance of Darwninian evolution for our understanding of disease in general and cancer in particular is still not fully recognised, and the other - which is a consequence of the first - is that much of the research in cancer treaement at present is missing the real point and is unlikely to provide a lot of benefit. The research effort needs to be directed differently. We also need to do more to achieve early treatment and improve prevention, both of which are achievable right now. The treatment of more advanced cancers is likely always to be difficult.
This book covers much the same ground historically as the author's later book A New History of Christianity, although its time span is wider, starting with Plato and Aristotle and ending with Thomas Aquinas. And rather than being purely descriptive, Freeman wants to advance a thesis,which he summarises at the outset like this.
We begin by returning to ancient Greece and exploring in particular how reason became established as an intellectual force in western culture. Then we can see how Christianity, under the influence of Paul's denunciation of Greek philosophy, began to create the barrier between science - and rational thought in general - and religion that appears to be unique to Christianity. Far from the rise of science challenging the concept of God (as is often assumed by protagonists in the debate) it was Christianity that actively challenged a well-established and sophisticated tradition of scientific thinking.
The first seven chapters present a survey of events and ideas in the ancient world before the advent of Christianity. The classical period in Greece was followed by Hellenism after the conquests of Alexander; then came the establishment of the Roman empire with its absorption of many Greek ideas. All these periods were characterised by plenty of intellectual activity. Christianity was to bring about a major change, although not immediately. Freeman's book is intended to explain how this came about. Read more
This book provides an account of Christianity from the death of Jesus in approximately 30 AD to the founding of the mediaeval papacy by Pope Gregory (the Great) at the end of the sixth century. The story is told three parts. Part 1 describes how the followers of Jesus developed their understanding of him in the decades after his death, Part 2 is about how Christianity arose from this background and expanded as a religion in the Roman empire, sometimes in the face of persecution, and Part 3 describes the radical changes that followed the Emperor Constantine's patronage after 313. Read more
Rutherford is a journalist and a BBC Radio 4 presenter as well as a geneticist, and I think this background shows in the way this book is written. It could almost be the script for a broadcast. The style is informal in the extreme, sometimes slangy and with plenty of often good jokes. Contractions such as "would've", "could've" abound.
And this informality is more than skin deep; it extends to the way the book is conceived. Its basic aim is to educate the reader. I don't mean that the tone is patronising, but Rutherford wants to convey certain messages and to counteract some erroneous ideas about genetics that are widespread today. [Read more]
Marjorie Grainger comes home after spending the day with a friend to find that her sister Dot, who is baby-sitting Marjorie's two children, has committed suicide by gassing herself in the oven. (That wouldn't work today but this novel was set between the two world wars, when coal gas was in use in Britain.)
At the inquest it emerges that Dot was three months pregnant. The verdict is suicide but Marjorie and her mother, Mrs Clair, realise that Dot was having an affair with Marjorie's husband, Ted, and that he has murdered her. They don't acknowledge this explicitly to each other and neither of them wants to involve the police, which would make the children the object of notoriety and scandal. Marjorie tries to put the knowledge of Ted's crime to the back of her mind, but her mother has a different response. Read more
In the last episode of Holby City the CEO. Henrik Hanssen, used '"bacteria" as a singlular. Hanssen is porrtrayed as punctilious and pedantic and I can't believe he would countenance this usage.